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Peer-Reviewed Journal Articles
Please select from the following research area domains to access our latest published articles.











Moral Injury
Understanding the impact and treatment of moral injury in military service members.

Journal of Traumatic Stress.
Philip Held, Brian J. Klassen, Alyson K. Zalta, Mark H. Polla

Using Prolonged Exposure and Cognitive Processing Therapy to treat veterans with moral injury-based PTSD: Two case examples.

Cognitive and Behavioral Practice.
Philip Held, Brian J. Klassen, Michael B. Brennan, and Alyson K. Zalta

Do morally injurious experiences and index events negatively impact intensive PTSD treatment outcomes among combat veterans?

European Journal of Psychotraumatology. 
Philip Held, Brian J. Klassen, Victoria L. Steigerwald, Dale L. Smith, Karyna Bravo, David C. Rozek, Rebecca Van Horn, Alyson Zalta

Negative posttrauma cognitions mediate the relationship between moral injury and PTSD in a sample of treatment-seeking veterans.

Journal of Traumatic Stress. 
Philip Held, Brian J. Klassen, Denise S. Zou, Blake S. Schroedter, Niranjan S. Karnik, Mark H. Pollack, Alyson K. Zalta 

“I knew it was wrong the moment I got the order”: A narrative thematic analysis of moral injury in combat veterans.

Psychological Trauma.
Philip Held, Brian J. Klassen, Joanne M. Hall, Tanya R. Friese, Marcel M. Bertsch-Gout, Alyson K. Zalta, and Mark H. Pollack

Substance Use
Impact of hazardous alcohol use on intensive PTSD treatment outcomes among veterans.

European Journal of Psychotraumatology.
Philip Held, Victoria L. Steigerwald, Dale L. Smith, Debra Kaysen, Rebecca Van Horn and Niranjan S. Karnik

Intensive Treatment
Evaluating changes in negative posttrauma cognition as a mechanism of PTSD severity changes in two separate intensive treatment programs for veterans.

BMC Psychiatry.
Held, P., Kaysen, D. L., & Smith, D. L.

The Role of Time Since Trauma on Treatment Outcomes of Veterans in Two Intensive Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Treatment Programs.

Journal of Traumatic Stress.
Manuscript accepted for publication.
Splaine, C., Smith, D.L., Held, P.

A qualitative investigation of barriers to initiating a three-week intensive PTSD treatment program for veterans.

Manuscript accepted for publication
Steigerwald, V. L., Bagley, J. M., Parrish, M. S., Van Horn, R., & Held, P.

Building strong therapeutic relationships quickly: The effect of the perceived working alliance on veterans’ intensive PTSD treatment outcomes.

Held, P., Meade, E. A., Kovacevic, M., Smith, D. L., Pridgen, S., Coleman, J. A., & Klassen, B. J.

Feasibility of a 3-Week Intensive Treatment Program for Service Members and Veterans with PTSD.

Psychological Trauma.
Philip Held, Brian J. Klassen, Randy A. Boley, Shannon Wiltsey Stirman, Dale L. Smith, Michael B. Brennan, Rebecca Van Horn, Mark H. Pollack, Niranjan S. Karnik, and Alyson K. Zalta

Treatment response trajectories in a three-week CPT-Based intensive treatment for veterans with PTSD.

Journal of Psychiatric Research.
Philip Held, Dale L. Smith, Jenna M. Bagley, Merdijana Kovacevic, Victoria L. Steigerwald, Rebecca Van Horn, Niranjan S. Karnik

Improving Mental, Physical, and Social Functioning Through Participation in a 3-Week Cognitive Processing Therapy-Based Intensive PTSD Treatment.

Journal of Anxiety Disorders.
Dale L. Smith, Merdijana Kovacevic, Mauricio Montes, Sarah Pridgen, Philip Held

Delivering Intensive PTSD Treatment Virtually: The Development of a 2-Week Intensive Cognitive Processing Therapy-Based Program in Response to Covid-19.

Cognitive and Behavioral Practice.
Philip Held, Brian J. Klassen, Jennifer A. Coleman, Kaitlin Thompson, Thad S. Rydberg, Rebecca Van Horn

Treating posttraumatic stress disorder at home in a single week using 1-week virtual massed cognitive processing therapy.

Journal of Traumatic Stress 
Philip Held, Merdijana Kovacevic, Kelsey Petrey, Enya A. Meade, Sarah Pridgen, Mauricio Montes, Michelle L. Miller, Dale L. Smith, Niranjan S. Karnik

Intensely Delivered Cognitive-Behavioral Therapies: An Overview of a Promising Treatment Delivery Format for PTSD and Other Mental Health Disorders.

Psychiatric Annals.
Philip Held, PhD; Jenna M. Bagley, BS, BA; Brian J. Klassen, PhD; and Mark H. Pollack, MD

Sexual Trauma
Changes in guilt cognitions in intensive PTSD treatment among veterans who experienced military sexual trauma or combat trauma.

Journal of Anxiety Disorders.
Manuscript accepted for publication.
Meade, E.A., Smith, D.L., Montes, M. Norman, S.B., & Held, P.

“You're going to look at me differently”: A qualitative study of disclosure experiences among survivors of military sexual assault.

Journal of Traumatic Stress.
Rufa, A. K., Carroll, K. K., Lofgreen, A., Klassen, B., Held, P., & Zalta, A. K.

An Overview of Sexual Trauma in the U.S. Military.

Focus (American Psychiatric Publishing).
Ashton M Lofgreen, PhD; Kathryn K Carroll, PhD; Sheila A Dugan MD; and Niranjan S Karnik MD, PhD

Negative posttraumatic cognitions among military sexual trauma survivors.

Journal of Affective Disorders
Kathryn K. Carroll, PhD; Ashton M Lofgreen, PhD; Darian C Weaver, BS; Philip Held, PhD; Brian J. Klassen, PhD; Dale L. Smith, PhD; Niranjan S Karnick MD, PhD; Mark H Pollack, MD; Alyson K Zalta, PhD

Improving Treatment Outcomes for a 3-week Intensive Outpatient Program for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Survivors of Military Sexual Trauma.

Journal of Affective Disorders.
Ashton M. Lofgreen, PhD; Vanessa Tirone, PhD; Kathryn K. Caroll, PhD; Anne K. Rufa, PhD; Dale L. Smith, PhD; Jenna M. Bagley, B.S., B.A.; Alyson K. Zalta, PhD; Michael B. Brennan, PsyD; Rebecca Van Horn, MD; Mark H. Pollack, MD; Philip Held, PhD

Examining the Impact of Sexual Revictimization in a Sample of Veterans Undergoing Intensive PTSD Treatment.

Journal of Interpersonal Violence.
Vanessa Tirone, Dale Smith, Victoria L Steigerwald, Jenna M Bagley, Michael Brennan, Rebecca Van Horn, Mark Pollack, Philip Held

Machine Learning
Moving toward precision PTSD treatment: predicting veterans' intensive PTSD treatment response using continuously updating machine learning models.

Psychological Medicine.
Smith, D. L., & Held, P.

Who will respond to intensive PTSD treatment? A machine learning approach to predicting response prior to starting treatment.

Journal of Psychiatric Research.
Held, P., Schubert, R. A., Pridgen, S., Kovacevic, M., Montes, M., Christ, N. M., Banerjee, U., & Smith, D. L.